Word order III (coverbs, auxiliaries, etc. in the sentence)

Sentences with coverbs

Important to mention that if we add a coverb to a verb, then the “neutral” word order changes to the following: The verb goes before the object.

Júlia délután megírja a levelet a nappaliban.
1. subject 2. time adverb 3. coverb+
verb 4. object 5. adverb of place

In case of negative sentences with coverb: the word nem goes before the verb as usual from above. What is unusual that the coverb stands after the verb and separate from it.

Júlia nem írja meg a levelet a nappaliban délután.
1. subject 2. nem 3. verb 4. coverb 5. object 6adverb of place and time

Sentences with auxiliary verbs

The affirmative sentence with auxiliary verb is easy, because we just put the auxiliary before the verb. Let’s see the auxiliary verbs fog (will) and akar (wants):

Júlia délután levelet fog írni a nappaliban. (will write)
Júlia délután levelet akar írni a nappaliban. (wants to write)
1. subject 2. time adverb 3. object 4. auxiliary 5. infinitive 6. adverb of place

this is also good:
Júlia délután 
írni fog egy levelet a nappaliban.
Júlia délután írni akar egy levelet a nappaliban.
1. subject 2. time adverb 3. 
infinitive 4. auxiliary 5. object 6. adverb of place
(If there is no object in the sentence then this is the only good solution in case of affirmative sentence without coverb)

In case of negating sentences, the nem and the auxiliary comes before the object and the infinitive goes after the object.

Júlia nem fog levelet írni a nappaliban délután(won’t write)
Júlia nem akar levelet írni a nappaliban délután(doesn’t want to write)
1. subject 2. nem 3. auxiliary 4. object 5. infinitive 6. adverb of place and time

In case of affirmative sentence with auxiliaty verb and coverb (the coverb is a separate word now, as it can’t be joined to the auxiliary, only to the verb that it belongs to):

Júlia délután meg fogja írni a levelet a nappaliban. (will write)
Júlia délután meg akarja írni a levelet a nappaliban. (wants to write)
1. subject 2. time adverb 3. coverb 4. auxiliary 5. infinitive 6. object 7. adverb of place

In case of negative sentence with auxiliaty verb and coverb: The coverb joins to the infinitive.

Júlia nem fogja megírni a levelet a nappaliban délután. (won’t write)
Júlia nem akarja megírni a levelet a nappaliban délután. (doesn’t want to write)
1. subject 2. nem 3. auxiliary 4. coverb+infinitive 5. object 6. adverb of place and time

other parts of speech in the sentence

There are a lot of possibilities for other parts of speech. Let’s see just two examples: Instrumental Adverb and Indirect Object (which we call Dative Adverb):

Júlia Péterrel délután levelet ír Juditnak a nappaliban. = Julia writes a letter to Judit in the living room afternoon with Peter.
1. subject 2. instrumental adverb 3. time adverb 4. object 5. verb 6. dative adverb 7. adverb of place

see Word order I (general explanation, affirmative sentences, what is inflexible)
see Word order II (open questions, negative sentences)
see Word order IV (summary table)


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